Kant sigue presente hoy a través de Habermas

No parece tener un fundamento lógico consistente lo que Habermas propone, pero al igual que sucede con Kant, en aras a un buen funcionamiento de la sociedad política, parece que interesa sostener las creencias religiosas , sean estas cualesquiera de las que existen en el presente. Peticiones de principio y círculos viciosos no son obstáculo si se trata de mantener el status quo político y económico. La ecualización entre derecha y las izquierdas políticas operando desde los planteamientos idealistas de Habermas a todas vela

Methodological atheism 

In this sense, Habermas observes, “In our context, it is […] a relevant circumstance that practical philosophy, on the basis of a methodological atheism, has recovered truths of religious salvation and revelation and included them in its own arguments. […] In this discourse only ‘public’ reasons count, that is, only such that can be in principle convincing beyond the bounds of a particular religious community”.

Philosophy, however, should not disqualify religion as irrational, but should instead open doors to a common rational discourse. For Habermas, the return of religion in confrontation with large parts of secular society constitutes a challenge to the liberal state about the conditions in which citizens can reciprocally respect each other and agree on common fundamental legal and ethical norms. In this sense, Habermas opened the door to a dialogue between the secular and religious points of views in his exchange with Benedict XVI, the then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger.

FUENTE http://www.goethe.de/ges/phi/prt/en4695434.htm

Between National Socialism and the Return of Religion – Jürgen Habermas Turns Eighty

Jürgen Habermas; © Lorenz ViereckeIn the 1960s Jürgen Habermas, then head of Max Horkheimer’s Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, appeared to be a main proponent of the allegedly neo-Marxist Frankfurt School. For the student rebels of 1968, however, he was by no means leftist enough. Today he might be called a philosopher of the second German democracy, and its foremost representative from the perspective of a constitutional patriotism.In honour of the eightieth birthday of Jürgen Habermas on June 18, 2009, the Suhrkamp Publishing House has brought out a notable five-volume student’s edition of his philosophical writings. The approximately 2,000 pages contain many of his articles from the 1980s to today. They span the time from the beginning of his thought to its current lines of development.

Inevitably, the starting-point of his political thought remains the experience of National Socialism. In the introduction to volume IV of this edition, for example, entitled Political Theory, he writes: “For us, the process of coming to grips politically with the fact that the Nazi regime met with the broad approval of our population still remains more than merely one theme amongst others. […] The early Federal Republic was stamped by a gulf between fragile democratic institutions and a scarcely shaken authoritarian mentality. […] The personal and intellectual continuities that were carried forward unchallenged under cover of a repressive anti-communism, on the other hand, kept alive the fear of a relapse into the authoritarian pattern of behaviour and elitist habits of thought characteristic of pre-democratic Germany – in my own case, well into the early 1980s”.

 

Ethical justification of action

 

Nevertheless, Habermas has refused to acquiesce in the pessimism about politics and cultural development widely felt in the Frankfurt School. Instead, he has gone back to its original intentions in the Weimar Republic. For example, he has occupied himself with the question how a critical social science can contribute to fostering juster, more democratic and on the whole more humane conditions. He has thus distanced himself from the Hegelian and Marxist oriented historico-philosophical approach of the Frankfurt School. That point of view, which is oriented to grand theories and social classes, has seemed to him to be inappropriate to modern societies. He has instead investigated the ethical justifications for actions – a perspective that runs through his thought from its beginnings to the present.

Reason, according to Habermas, does not necessarily harbour a propensity to violence if we give heed to its communicative structure. Reason invites the exchange of arguments, which precisely avoids violence. From this follows not only the free compulsion of the better argument, but also a perspective that sets reason in the service of a humanising of the life-world. Reason then works to prevent its domination by social forces such as economics, bureaucracy and the military which, for example, asserted themselves in the form of a militant totalitarian movement in Nazi Germany and succeeded in infiltrating practically all areas of the life.

The Suhrkamp student’s edition of Habermas’s work, published on the occasion of his eightieth birthday; © Suhrkamp VerlagIt is therefore not surprising that the current phase of Habermas’s thought concerns itself with the return of religions to the political stage, a return that in many cases has degenerated into a very threatening issue for the life-world and so has raised the following question about ethics: How far may, or need, the ethical norms of a secular state be founded in religion? This question plays a prominent role in the new edition of Habermas’s works.

“In the period following the end of the Second World War”, writes Habermas in his article on Religion in der Öffentlichkeit (i.e., Religion in the Public Sphere), “all European countries, with the exception of Ireland and Poland, have been encompassed by a wave of secularisation that comes along with social modernisation. In the United States, on the other hand, all polling data proves that the number of believing and religiously active citizens, at all events comparatively high, has remained constant in the last six decades. […] Considered from a world historical point of view, Max Weber’s ‘occidental rationalism’ now appears to be a separate and special path”.

Habermas acknowledges that philosophy in the tradition of the Enlightenment is indebted to religious tradition for many orientations, especially ethical ones. Yet that does not alter the fact that religious and philosophical thought differ on the question of the justification of truth and the acceptance of authorities. Philosophy will continue to insist on the difference between religious certainty and scientific knowledge, and so accept religious grounds neither in law nor in ethics.

 

Methodological atheism

 

In this sense, Habermas observes, “In our context, it is […] a relevant circumstance that practical philosophy, on the basis of a methodological atheism, has recovered truths of religious salvation and revelation and included them in its own arguments. […] In this discourse only ‘public’ reasons count, that is, only such that can be in principle convincing beyond the bounds of a particular religious community”.

Philosophy, however, should not disqualify religion as irrational, but should instead open doors to a common rational discourse. For Habermas, the return of religion in confrontation with large parts of secular society constitutes a challenge to the liberal state about the conditions in which citizens can reciprocally respect each other and agree on common fundamental legal and ethical norms. In this sense, Habermas opened the door to a dialogue between the secular and religious points of views in his exchange with Benedict XVI, the then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger.

Jürgen Habermas: Philosophische Texte: Studienausgabe in fünf Bänden. Suhrkamp Verlag 2009, ISBN 978-3518585153.

 

Hans-Martin Schönherr-Mann
is an Essayist and Professor for Political Philosophy at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich and Professor for the philosophy of Science at the Leopold Franzens University of Innsbruck.

Translated by Jonathan Uhlaner
Copyright: Goethe-Institut e. V., Online-Redaktion [Diese Zeile nicht übersetzen]
June 2009Any questions about this article? Please write to us!

 

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