NOTA DE INTROFILOSOFIA: Sobre los asuntos sociales, políticos e ideológicos que le hicieron luchar contra el franquismo, para luego ir pasando a buscar una salida , desde el liberalismo, a las alternativas de unas izquierdas que fueron paulatinamente perdiendo por completo el rumbo hacia una política realmente al servicio de los individuos , libremente asociados en un sistema democrático y eutáxico ( término éste, que tomamos de la teoría política de Gustavo Bueno)Recomendamos , a modo de complemento de este video, un artículo reseña escrito por el fundador del Materialismo Filosófico ( Gustavo Bueno ), sobre el libro de Losantos titulado Lo que queda de España
Lenin’s mummy and the fraud of the October Revolution
Iwo C. Pogonowski|Wednesday, March 3, 2010
The tragedy of Russian history is that the bloodless revolution in March 8-12, 1917 which caused on March 15, 1917 the abdication of that Tsar Nicholas II (1868-17 July 1918) and ended the rule of the Romanovs Dynasty produced weakened Russia and gave opportunity to Berlin to use paid agents to stage political takeover of the government in St. Petersburg and secure the surrender of Russia as well as short-lasting submission of Russia to the status of a vassal of the German Empire.
Lenin’s mummy and the fraud of the October Revolution 2010-02-27 The tragedy of Russian history is that the bloodless revolution in March 8-12, 1917 which caused on March 15, 1917 the abdication of that Tsar Nicholas II (1868-17 July 1918) and ended the rule of the Romanovs Dynasty produced weakened Russia and gave opportunity to Berlin to use paid agents to stage political takeover of the government in St. Petersburg and secure the surrender of Russia as well as short-lasting submission of Russia to the status of a vassal of the German Empire. Strange reminder of these events is located in place of honor in a mausoleum which is located outside of the fortified wall of Kremlin and serves as the viewing platform for Russian dignitaries reviewing parades of their military might. A unique in the world the mummy-icon of Vladimir Lenin is located there and it is regularly groomed for good looks. Is a strange ritual that honors a coward, full of contempt for working men, who was absent from Russia for 17 years before the Bolshevik take-over, became a mummy-icon. Why is he there against his will instead of being buried in St. Peteresburg next to his mother? The mummified body of Lenin in the Red Square is a product of Byzantine traditions of reverence for icons cynically adapted to Soviet politics and ironically commemorating the career of a paid German agent recruited in Switzerland to help to move German forces from Russia to France during WWI. The first incontrovertible evidence for Lenin being paid by the government of Germany is documented and discussed in detail in the book “Unknown Lenin” by Richard Pipes, published in June 1999, ISBN- 0300076622. According to professor Richard Pipes, Ulyanov’s family was ethnically mixed. It included Moldavians, nomadic Ugro-Finish Chuvashes, Volga Germans, Swedes, and possibly Jews but not Slavs. By a strange turn of history the American entry into WWI precipitated a chain of events that eventually caused Lenin’s body to be mummified and displayed to the public as a unique mummy-icon in the world. The fact is that in order to face American forces in France, the Germans decided to shift the bulk of their forces from the Russian front west. Berlin’s decision to take advantage of the revolution in Russia made possible the extraordinary political career of Vladimir Lenin, an obscure refugee in Switzerland virtually unknown to the Russian public. Lenin was recruited as a German agent to facilitate the liquidation of the Russian front and was given virtually unlimited German money, to convert a clique of conspirators, into Russian revolutionary power by bribery and by hiring criminal gangs to execute, with the help of Leon Trotsky, a sudden Bolshevik takeover of the government in St. Petersburg on October 17. 1917. The fact that Lenin died in third stage of syphilis might indicate that his manic obsession with the idea of an inevitable communist world revolution was possibly related to this devastating disease. When Lenin died in 1924, Stalin decided to disobey his wishes to be buried next to his mother in St. Petersburg, and instead ordered the best doctors and scientists to come up with a scheme whereby they could mummify Lenin’s body. Thus, with one stroke of genius Stalin combined the idea of Egyptian mummy with Byzantine icon and established a scientific institute for creation and conservation of the mummy-icon in presentable rejuvenated shape, instead of the dilapidated look of Lenin at the moment of his death. Stalin decided to mummify Lenin’s body to serve as a communist icon in Russia and probably created the first in history mummy-icon for public display. As we know the Egyptian mummies were bandages and were not meant to serve as a public exhibits while the mummy of Lenin was conceived for the benefit of continuity of the Bolshevik rule in Russia. Lenin’s mummy acquired quasi religious aura and it is shown to public in atmosphere of a pagan cult – the newlyweds visit the mummy-icon mausoleum and often deposit flowers there in honor of the “good” father of Bolshevik Russia. Stalin’s decision to produce a mummified national icon out of the body of Lenin is said to be rooted in the years of Stalin’s training to be an orthodox priest of the Byzantine rights. Apparently, Col. Konstanty Przewalski paid the tuition for Stalin’s training for Byzantine priesthood. Stalin’s mother was Przewalski’s housekeeper in Georgia. Polish Communist official, Franciszek Szlachcic, remarked to Khrushchev that on photographs the famous geographer Przewalski and Stalin “resemble each other like two drops of water.” Perhaps Stalin inherited his phenomenal memory from Przewalski the famous geographer. During Lenin’s exile in Switzerland with his health problems caused by syphilis his political carrier benefited enormously when an arms dealer, Aleksander Heplhand, who recommended Lenin to the German to be an agent in a scheme to bringing about the surrender of Russia plunged into civil war and terror as is described in detail in the book: “The Merchant of Revolution” by Z. A. Zeman and W. B. Scharlau. American threat to German forces in France caused the Germans to postpone the plans for a quick expansion of the German Empire by subduing Russia the way Britain once subdued India, as described by Aleksander Guchkov, defense minister in Kerensky’s government. The new plans called for elimination of the Eastern Front by crucial German support for revolution in Russia and gave Lenin his chance of a lifetime to become na important figure in history. The proposal is described in the Journal of the German Foreign Ministry on March 9, 1917, after it was first proposed on March 9, 1915, by Aleksander Helphand, who eventually obtained “unlimited German money” for takeover of the Russian government by a clique of conspirators. On July 18. 1917 Lenin was accused by the Russian Ministry of Justice under Prime Minster A. F. Kerensky (1881-1970) and was declared guilty of high treason. Evidence was produced in court, that Bolsheviks received huge amounts of money from the German Government. Helphand was exposed as a German agent, in a treasonable cooperation between Bolsheviks and the German Government. The total expenditure of the German treasury, is estimated to be about ten tons of gold. Lenin, while crossing German territory, had with him on board of his train some ten million dollars in gold, thanks to German chief banker Max Warburg, whose brother Paul strangely enough, in 1913, was the chief architect of the Federal Reserve System, the central bank of the United States. Leon Trotsky with an American passport and large amount of money (about 20,000,000 dollars in gold in his hand), departed New York on board of the ship SS. Kristianiafiord, on March 27, 1917 together with 275 Jewish revolutionaries. They were detained in Halifax, Nova Scottia, by the Canadians, who logically thought, that Trotsky may help to stage a revolution in Russia, which would allow a diversion of large number of German soldiers to the Western Front and cause more Canadian soldiers to be killed there. Obviously the bankers who supported the Bolshevik takeover were not afraid of the proletarian slogans demanding confiscation of their money, because these bankers controlled Lenin’s government – a government that have paid back the bank Kuhn and Loeb 100,000,000 dollars during 1918-1922 according to “Tsardom and the Revolution” by Russian general Arsene de Goulevich . After five days of detention, Trotsky and company were released upon intervention of Sir William Wiseman, partner of Kuhn and Loeb financial firm, and they continued their voyage to St. Petersburg, where they met Lenin in April 1917 in the Russian capital, then in a state of anarchy. A few month after Lenin’s government’s surrender to the Germans on March 3, 1918 and acting on Lenin’s personal order cosigned by Swerdlow another German agent and without any court proceedings, on July 17, 1918 an execution squad led by Jewish officer, Yankel Yurovsky, executed in a cellar the Tsar, his wife, five children and servants. This happened in Ekaterinburg as a Czech contingent of the White Army was approaching. Tsar’s doctor Botkin said to one of the revolutionaries, evidently a Jew, “The time will come when everyone will believe that it was the Jews who were responsible for this, and they will be the victims.” Yankel Yurovsky, is described as he silenced the wounded and moaning Tsarevich, Alexis, with two revolver shots. “Anyone who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the Cheka,” wrote Jewish historian Leonard Schapiro, “stood a very good chance of finding himself confronted with, and possibly shot by, a Jewish investigator.” In Ukraine, “Jews made up nearly 80 percent of the rank-and-file Cheka agents,” reports W. Bruce Lincoln, an American professor of Russian history. (Beginning as the Cheka, or Vecheka) the Soviet secret police was later known as the GPU, OGPU, NKVD, MVD and KGB. In light of all this, it should not be surprising that Yakov M. Yurovsky, the leader of the Bolshevik squad that carried out the murder of the Tsar and his family, was Jewish, as was Sverdlov, the Soviet chief, who co-signed Lenin’s execution order. In his 1920 book, British veteran journalist Robert Wilton offered a similarly harsh assessment: “The whole record of Bolshevism in Russia is indelibly impressed with the stamp of alien invasion. The murder of the Tsar, deliberately planned by the Jew Sverdlov (who came to Russia as a paid agent of Germany) and carried out by the Jews Goloshchekin, Syromolotov, Safarov, Voikov and Yurovsky, is the act not of the Russian people, but of this hostile invader.” The files of the German Foreign Ministry thoroughly document the four stages of the Policy of the Imperial German Government towards the revolution in Russia. The first stage lasted from Janurary 1915, until its outbreak in 1917. The second stage, run from March 1917 until the Bolshevik seizure of power. It included the recruitment and shipment by the Germans of Vladimir Lenin and other Russian revolutionaries, first with several million dollars in gold on board of the train from Switzerland and Belgium, through Germany and Scandinavia, to Russia. The third stage covered the German reaction in Nov. and Dec. 1917, to the Bolshevik putsch and seizure of power. It ended with failure of Hephand’s plan for a peace conference on a neutral territory for the purpose of bargaining with the Germans about the terms of Russian capitulation. The fourth stage consisted of the opening of the negotiations in Brest-Litovsk, a town under German occupation, in Nov. 1917 and their conclusion on the German terms on March 3, 1918. Lenin’s government officially accepted the status of Russia as vassal state within the German Empire. The treaty of Brest Litovsk was a humiliating capitulation. It recognized Russia as a vassal state of Germany. The capitulation to the Germans was opposed by great majority of Russians. Bolshevik government of Russia surrendered to Germany and Austria 150,000 sq. km of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. The German states occupied a major portion of the Ukraine and Byelorussia following the earlier recommendations by Helphand. The fortunes of Bolshevik Russia improved, when on November 13, 1918 came the defeat of Germany on the western front, and when the Bolshevik government had a chance to declare the treaty of Brest-Litovsk as null and void. Lenin was considered a traitor by Russians and for this reason he had to use cadres composed of national minorities, mainly Jews, well acquainted with the tradition of thousand years of rabbinic terror, which ended in the XIX century to be revives in revolutionary Russia and later in the form of Israeli Apartheid state in Palestine. Lenin’s manic faith in the world communist revolution resembled the faith in the Apocalypse and Armageddon, a powerful driving force in modern American politics and in the 2000 election, it propelled Bush into the presidency, according to Joan Bokaer, director of “Theocracy Watch,” a project of the Center for Religion, Ethics, and Social Policy at Cornell University. Earlier Jabotinsky Centennial Medal was awarded by the State of Israel to Jerry Falwell of Virginia as a part of formal alliance between American Christian-Right and Israel. Reports surfaced that a Learjet had been given by Israeli Prime Minister Begin on behalf of the State of Israel to show appreciation for Falwell support, which became useful to Begin when Israel unilaterally bombed Iraq’a nuclear reactor in 1981. Falwell coined the pro-Israeli slogan that “American Bible belt is Israeli safety Belt.” The Jews of San Antonio B’nai B’rith Council awarded pastor Hagee a supporter of Jewish Apartheid in Palestine, with its “Humanitarian of the Year” award. It was the first time this award was given to a gentile. John Hagee also was presented the Zionist Organization of America’s Israel Award, by U.N. Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick. The Zionist award was paid for by the Jewish Community, Dallas, Texas. Hagee was also presented the ZOA Service Award, by Texas Governor. Houston Mayor Kathryn J. Whitmire issued a special proclamation in Hagee’s honor, declaring Pastor John C. Hagee Day in Houston. Hagee has been to Israel 22 times and has met with every Prime Minister of Israel since Menachem Begin. John Hagee Ministries has given more than $8.5 million to bring Soviet Jews from the former Soviet Union to Israel. Hagee is the Founder and Executive Director of “A Night to Honor Israel,” a yearly event that expresses solidarity between Zionist Christians and Jews in Jerusalem and in the State of Israel, by citizens of the United States. On February 7, 2006, Hagee and 400 leaders from the Christian Zionist and Jewish communities formed a new national organization called “Christians United for Israel.” This organization addresses members of the US Congress, professing a Biblical justification for the defense of the State of Israel by the Americans. Hagee has been criticized for his statements about Israel, the Roman Catholic Church, and Islam. Hagee’s notable critic is journalist Bill Moyers, who claims that Hagee and other evangelicals are supporting Zionist Jews of Palestine. He states, “Someone who didn’t know better could imagine from the very name Christians United For Israel—CUFI—that pastor John Hagee speaks for all Christians. Well, he doesn’t… What these fellows have forged is a close connection between the Bush’s White House and the religious right.” Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said during a Sunday night speech in San Antonio that the United States and its allies must have a “moral clarity” and be unflinching toward terrorists if the current military campaign in Afghanistan is to be successful. Comparing the present moment in history to the fight against Nazi Germany, Netanyahu made his remarks to about 6,000 people who packed the main building of the cavernous Cornerstone Church of pastor Hagee and participated in the congregation’s 20th annual “A Night to Honor Israel.” Benjamin Netanyahu came to San Antonio under tight security as a guest of the Rev. John Hagee, who built the church through his successful television ministry and commitment to Israel. Hagee said donations collected during the event would be dedicated to the relief effort such as bringing Jews from the former USSR to Israel at the expense of American Christian Syonists, who believe that we are now living through the Apocalypse. Lenin’s cult was used by Stalin and his successors to mobilize loyalty for Soviet regime. In process a myth was created of revered father of the Russian Revolution, who created the science of Marxism-Leninism, which, “evolved” with political changes in the Kremlin. It is interesting that today the main voice to keep Lenin’s mummy-icon displayed on the Red Square is that of the head of the Russian Communist Party Gennady Zyuganov.
The Paradox of the Spanish Civil War and the “Moslems” in Nazi Concentration Camps
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski|Saturday, December 25, 2010
In “The Spanish Civil War 1936-9″the author Donald MacKinnon wrote that …. We ignore the ghastly paradox of a war to make the world democratic. The book on the origins of the Spanish Civil War by Nigel Thomson: “The Crisis of Democracy in Spain” … confronts the greatest paradox of the Second Republic: why did the most popular and historic party of the republican movement play the key role in the Republic’s destruction? Why did it let itself be subverted by Stalin’s NKVD, and accepted by far more weapons from the Soviets than the nationalist received from Hitler and Mussolini.
During WWII one of the most dreaded commands of the SS-guards in Nazi concentration camps was: “Ale Musulmaenners austreten” (“all Muslims step forwards.” The Nazi veterans of the Condor Legion in Spain, who later served as guards in concentration camps, brought with them Spanish curse words such as “carajo” (kahrakho) and the habit of calling “Muslims” most miserable and run down prisoners in Nazi camps. Apparently, the word “Muslim,” was first used as a term of contempt by Nazi soldiers in order to describe the Arabs from Morocco, who served in Franco’s colonial army. A few years later in Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin the “Muslims” were subjected to brutal “sport,” a procedure derived from Prussian dehumanizing routines used on recruits from over sixty percent of the population of the Kingdom of Prussia who, immediately after the partitions of Poland, did not know THE German language and spoke several Polish dialects. I did witness , and, two times personally, was exposed to the so called “sport,” that served to eliminate the “Muslims” or prisoners too weak to work. However, in reality the choice of victims was made by the men in charge of each barrack – usually criminals marked with green triangles and called in German “beruf verbrecher” (“professional criminals). During the “sport” the SS-men gave such orders as “hinlegen – auf – marsch – marsch;” they were making the prisoners jump like frogs and then roll on the ground until many vomited while being kicked and beaten by Nazi guards including veterans of the Condor Legion used by Hitler in Spain. In the Flossenburg concentration camp on April 9, 1945, took place macabre execution of the hanging twice of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris who was led to the gallows barefoot and naked. The hanging rope was cut and Adm. Canaris was hanged for the second time. Early in his intelligence work Adm. Canaris had an efficient spy-communication network in Spain, which had been developed over decades, beginning in 1914 and provided the only reliable communication network for the forces of General Franco during the 1936-39 Spanish Civil War. Admiral Canaris saw the failure of Hitler’s Anti-Comintern Pact, in protracted negotiations with Poland (from Aug. 5, 1935 to Jan. 26, 1939) trying to enlist Poland’s participation in the planned assault on the Soviet Union by Germany and Poland from the west and Japan from the east. No doubt Adm. Canaris knew that the long prepared attack on Russia could not succeed without Poland, which was crucial because Poland constituted a barrier blocking German access to the Soviet Union and especially to the Ukraine, which Hitler planned to annex in building his Reich for next thousand years from the Rhine River to the Dnepr River. The Nazi government saw only two choices for Poland: either to participate in the assault on the Soviet Union or be destroyed. The destruction of Poland could be done only with the participation of Russia because the Polish armed forces were too strong and would inflict too heavy losses on the German army if Germany were to face the hostility of Polish and Russian forces in the same campaign at the same time. However, the Nazi-Soviet pact meant betrayal of Nazi-Japanese pact of Nov. 25, 1936 and therefore the possible end of the Japanese Quantung Army from the hostilities against Russia which started in 1937 and by 1939 included the largest air battles in the history of warfare up to that time. It involved hundreds of Soviet and Japanese airplanes. By then Adm. Canaris realized that Germany might be on its way to lose the Second World War on worse terms than it lost the First World War. It is conclusively proven by documents of that time that Canaris was outraged by the atrocities he witnessed being bring committed by German forces in Poland and was determined to confront Hitler on this issue. He was stopped by General Keitel who informed him that these atrocities were a matter of policy decided by Hittler himself. As chief of the high command of the armed forces, since February 1938, Keitek was in a position to order his subordinate to desist and not bring up the matter to Hitler and to drop the issue. It was at this point that canaries began to cooperate with British intelligence through his Polish mistress, Halina, in Switzerland, who was an agent of MI6. For much of the war he would exchange information about Nazi actions for information from the British about strategic intelligence concerning the Soviets. The drama of Nazi agreission started on March 10, 1939 when Stalin’s speech to the 18th convention of the Soviet Communist Party was broadcast by Radio Moscow in which Stalin invited the cooperation between National Socialist Germany and the Soviet Union. See: “Jews In Poland: The Rise Of Jews As A Nation From Congressus Judaicus In Poland To The Knesset In Israel,” Hippocrene Books Inc, New York, 1998, page 95. Hitler’s acceptance of Stalin’s invitation resulted in the betrayal of the German treaty with Japan of Nov. 25, 1936 and lead to Japan’s withdrawal from the war against Russia on Sept. 16, 1939. On Sept. 17, 1939 the Red Army invaded Poland two weeks after the German attack of Sept.1, 1939, which caused France and Britain to declare war on Nazi Germany. This resulted in the eventual two-front war against Germany instead of the two-front war against Russia which Hitler had planned, Adm. Canaris was fully aware of the eventual catastrophic fiasco of Hitler’s war plans. ON August 11, 1939, Hitler said to Jacob Burkhardt, Commissioner of the League of Nations: “Everything I undertake is directed against Russia; if the West is too stupid and blind to grasp this, I shall be compelled to come to an agreement with the Russians, beat the West and then, after their defeat, turn against the Soviet Union with all my forces. I need the Ukraine so that they can not starve me out as happened in the last war.” (Roy Dennan “Missed Chances,” Indigo, London 1997, p. 65). Hitler talked about Russia being “German Africa” and Russians as “negros” to be used by the superior German race. When an envoy selected by Admiral Canaris was to deliver a letter from Hitler urging declaration of war by Franco’s government against Gr. Britain and France the admiral sent through the same envoy a verbal message to General Franco saying: “Germany WILL lose the war.” When Franco sent his Blue Division of nearly 50,000 man to fight the Soviet Union he agreed that the Spanish soldiers would swear personal allegiance to Hitler in the war against the Communists. At the time of his execution, Canaris had been decorated with the Iron Cross First and Second Class, the Silver German Cross, the Cross of Honor and the Wehrmacht Twelve and Twenty-Five Year Long-Service Ribbons. At about the same time, early in 1945, during changes in assignments of sleeping quarters for prisoners in Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp I met a 76 year old Spanish dignitary, who did not speak–or refused to– speak German. I was then A 23 year old veteran of five years of Gestapo prisons. Starting on August 10, 1940 I was imprisoned in the Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg concentration camp near Berlin. The old Spaniard was assigned to sleep in a bunk bed above me. Noticing how hard it was for the old man to climb to his bunk bed, I wandered how such an old man could have survived in Sachsenhausen, as long as his number indicated. Eventually, I suspected that he was helped by the local Communist mafia. Nazi concentration camps were in general dominated by a mafia of criminals, however after the Nazi-Soviet pact in 1939 the German Communist mafia grew in strength and many Communists participated in the internal hierarchy of the concentration camp in Sachsenhausen. I offered the old Spaniard to change places with him and let him use the lower bunk. Soon I found out that he spoke French with A heavy Spanish accent. I had been learning French for some eight years in schools in Poland and I could speak French with a heavy Polish accent. The name of the old prisoner was Francisco Largo Caballero (15 October 1869 – 23 March 1946). He told me that during 1936 and 1937, served as the Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic. Then it became obvious to me that he must have been offered help by Communist mafia in Sachsenhausen. In fact in 1936, a few months into the civil war, Largo Caballero was designated Prime Minister and Minister of War. Earlier he served as Minister of Labor Relations between 1931 and 1933, in the first governments of the Second Spanish Republic. Largo Caballero abandoned his moderate positions, began to talk of “socialist revolution”, and became the leader of the revolutionary wing of the socialist party heavily influenced by the Soviet NKVD. He defended the pact of alliance with the other workers’ political parties and trade unions, such as the Partido Comunista de Espańa and the anarchist trade union Confederacion Nacional del Trabajio. His opponents declared, that “Largo Caballero shall be the second Lenin,” whose aim is the union of Iberian Soviet Republics. Largo Caballero then dismissed fears of a military coup, and predicted that, were it to happen, a general strike would defeat it, opening the door to the workers’ revolution. The coup attempt by the colonial army came on 17 July 1936. While not immediately successful, further actions by rebellious army units sparked the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), in which the republic was ultimately defeated and destroyed. On 4 September 1936, a few months into the civil war, Largo Caballero was designated the 134th Prime Minister and Minister of War. His particular focus, besides the obvious matter of the conducting the war itself, was to maintain military discipline and governmental authority within the Republican zone. Nonetheless, the May 3-8, 1937 revolt in Barcelona by the oppositional communist Workers Party and the anarchists following an attempt to seize the telephone exchange led to a governmental crisis, forcing Caballero’s resignation on 17 May leading to the Popular Front government of doctor Juan Negrin. Upon the defeat of the Republic in 1939, Caballero fled to France. Arrested during the German occupation of France, he spent most of World War II imprisoned in the Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg concentration camp near Berlin where I met him. I later have learned that he died in exile in Paris in 1946 and his remains were returned to Madrid in 1978. After the war I learned that the Condor Legion was part of ”Operation Fire Magic,” The German military aid to the Spanish Nationalist rebels, which began after a request for assistance dispatched by Spanish General Francisco Franco. The request was received by Adolf Hitler on July 22, 1936, five days after the rebellion began on 17 July, 1936. Most of the Nazi “Spanienkaempfers” were from the Luftwaffe and many were later decorated with the “Spanienkreuz” (Spanish Cross). The campaign medal was awarded by the German authorities from April 14, 1939 on, when the Nazi intervention in Spain ended. Later, Hitler was disappointed when Franco refused to join the axis of Germany and Italy and criticized the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of “Catholic Poland”. In 1940 Franco rejected Hitler’s request of crossing Spanish territory for the German attack on Gibraltar. While in Venezuela, during the late 1940′S I befriended Catholic Basque refugees who taught me Spanish and called general Franco “hijo predilecto de la Santa Iglesia Catolica” (“favorite son of the Holy Catholic Church”) mainly because he stopped the atrocities conducted by mobs armed by the Republican government and manipulated by the NKVD under Stalin’s orders. The Basque Nationalists entered into the Spanish Civil War on the side of the Republic, because of their demand for autonomy. As conservatives their natural political choice would have been to back Franco, but they disagreed with the centralist conservative Spanish authorities over local municipal autonomy. They were allied with the Catalans, who were leftist nationalists. The struggle between the Basques and Franco’s forces was a struggle between two groups of conservatives. A republican victory in Spain in reality would have meant A Soviet style government. The arming of the revolutionaries by the liberal politicians brought AN end to any hopes for democracy in Republican Spain, as is pointed out by professor M. J. Chodakiewicz of the Institute of World Politics in Washington in his book about “Communist lies about the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939,” (“Zagrabiona Pamięć: Wojna w Hiszpanii 1936-1939,” Fonda, Warszawa 2010, ISBN 978-83-62268-08-5.) The toll on Catholic Clergy in the course of the Red Terror in Spain was: 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy. TWENTY percent of the nation’s clergy, were killed. In Spain in 1936-39 murdered clergy included 4,172 diocesan priests, 2,364 monks and friars. For comparison, in Poland, in 1939-1945, six bishops, 2,030 priests, 127 seminarians, 173 lay brothers and 243 nuns were murdered by the Nazis alone, while similar crimes were committed on Polish Clergy by the Soviet terror apparatus. Some 5,400 Poles fought in Spain. The majority (3,800) were miners working in France, 300 were Polish-Americans, and several hundred were Poles living in various European countries. Only 800 came from Poland itself. The International Brigades in Spain often named its battalions and brigades using historical symbolism. The XIX century Polish nobleman, who became a nationalist revolutionary, general Jarosław Radwan Żądło Dąbrowski was an obvious choice. Dąbrowski was brought up in the tradition of the First Polish Republic which I have described in my book “The First Democracy in Modern Europe: Million Free Citizens Lived in Poland in 1600 AD” which fact happens to be a record in the world history of representative government. Every grown up citizen had the right to be a candidate for the throne of Poland in a free and general election. Every man and woman had the same rights to inherit property. The Polish indigenous legislative process shaped national culture of Poland in contradistinction to the rest of Europe, where at the same time national cultures were shaped by the royal court and towns. Jarosław Dąbrowski was involved in the January Uprising, in a plot against Tsar Alexander II and imprisoned. In 1865, he fled and escaped to France. In 1871, he was elected to the Paris Commune and took over the command of defense of Paris. He was killed AT the barricades, “fighting gallantly” for a foreign cause following the Polish traditional motto: “For your and our freedom.” Throughout the Spanish Civil War, the name Dabrowski was used in addition to the unit designation for units with a Polish connection or component. These include the Dabrowski Battalion and the XIII International Brigade (also known as the 13th Dabrowski Brigade) and the 150th International Brigade. Today, in Poland, Polish veterans of the Spanish Civil War are known as the “Dąbrowszczacy” a “proletarian” version of the proper word of “Dąbrowszczycy,” The very use of the name of Dąbrowski by Soviet propaganda is a part of typically Soviet twisting of history and truth. It is similar, for example, to Soviet use of the word “truth” or in Russian “pravda” as the title of the deceitful and full of lies Soviet official daily paper in Moscow. Military revolt against the government of Spain occurred after the 1936 elections which produced a Popular Front government supported mainly by left-wing parties. A military uprising began in garrison towns throughout Spain, led by the rebel Nationalists and supported by conservative elements in the clergy, military, and landowners as well as the fascist Falange. The ruling Republican government, led by the socialist premiers Francisco Largo Caballero and Juan Negrín (1894 – 1956) and the liberal president Manuel Azańa y Díaz, was supported by workers and many in the educated middle class as well as militant anarchists and communists manipulated by the Soviets. Government forces put down the uprising in most regions except parts of northwestern and southwestern Spain, where the Nationalists held control and named Francisco Franco head of state. Both sides repressed opposition; together, they executed or assassinated more than 50,000 suspected enemies to their respective causes. Seeking aid from abroad, the Nationalists received troops, tanks, and planes from Nazi Germany and Italy, which in reality used Spain as a testing ground for new methods of tank and air warfare. The Republicans called “loyalists” were sent weapons mainly by the Soviet Union, and the volunteer International Brigades also joined the Republicans. The two sides fought a war of attrition. The Nationalist side gradually gained territory and by April 1938 succeeded in splitting Spain from east to west, causing 250,000 Republican forces to flee into France, including Francisco Largo Caballero. In March 1939 the remaining Republican forces surrendered, and Madrid was in the midst of civil strife between communists and anticommunists and fell to the Nationalists on March 28. About 500,000 people died in the war. The war’s end brought a period of dictatorship that lasted until the mid-1970s. The American Abraham Lincoln Battalion (usually, but incorrectly, referred to as a brigade) in Spain, for example, was under the command of Robert Hale Merriman (1908 – 1938) who was a leftist American professor of economics at the University of California and he stayed in 1935 in Moscow for several months and naturally was under control of the Soviet terror apparatus especially the NKVD. He joined the Republican forces in Spain. Merriman was of poor origin and worked various odd jobs in order to make his way to the University of Nevada. To earn money while at school, he joined the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) where he received basic training with arms. He was chosen to lead the volunteers in Spain because he was a member of left-wing groups at the University of California and A friend of professor Robert Oppenheimer, the father of American atomic bomb, who, according to former NKVD general Pavel Sudoplatow’s book, with the foreword by Robert Conquest, “Special Tasks” (ISBN 0-316-77352-2 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-75737) helped the Soviets to produce and test a DUPLICATE OF THE American atomic bomb. This was the fact that caused Oppenheimer to lose his security clearance. Merriman moved to Spain together with his wife early in 1937 and joined the International Brigades at their training camp in Albacete. As few volunteers had any military experience, Merriman’s ROTC experience meant that he took over the training of the 428-man strong Lincoln Battalion and, in late January, he became battalion commander. He held the rank of Captain of the Spanish Republic. The Lincoln Battalion first saw action at the Battle of Jarama (6-27 February). They were one of the four battalions comprising the XV International Brigade. Their role was to prevent Nationalist forces taking the main Madrid-Valencia road. The Lincolns took appalling casualties, particularly in the assault of Pingarrón, which became known as Suicide Hill. Merriman himself was seriously wounded and spent time as Chief of XV Brigade Staff. His place as battalion commander was taken by Martin Hourihan (a US Army veteran). The weakened Lincolns next went into action at the Battle of Brunete. Together with the depleted British Battalion, and an under-strength second American battalion (the George Washington Battalion, commanded by African-American Oliver Law), they formed one regiment of the XV International Brigade in which out of the 2,500 men who went into battle, only 1,000 effectives remained. According to reports: “The Americans … were cut to pieces. The Washington Battalion sustained fifty percent casualties and the Lincoln Battalion was heavily depleted as well. Of the eight hundred Americans in the Lincoln and Washington Battalions at the start of the Brunete offensive on 6 July, only five hundred effectives remained.” Merriman led the battalion again during the Battle of Teruel in Aragon. Under heavy attack by Nationalist tanks and aircraft, the battalion was forced to retreat to Catalonia and its boundary, the river Ebro – the only available direction, On April 2, 1938, around the vineyards of Corbera d’Ebre, near the key city of Gandesa, twenty kilometers before the river, Merriman and his lieutenant, Edgar James Cody, were killed in action, or possibly captured and executed some hours later. According to local tradition in Northwest Spain, Franco’s ancestors were Marranos, Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity during the Middle Ages under threat of death or persecution. Genaralissimo was criticized by the Zionists who wanted Jews to be forced to go to Palestine in order to create there a Jewish state. However according to a few quotations from the book by Jane & Burt Boyar (“Hitler Stopped By Franco,”) “general Franco shall occupy a special place in memory of the Jews who should honor and bless the memory of this great benefactor of the Jewish people…who neither sought nor reaped any benefit from what he did.” – From a four page obituary in The American Sephardi Journal of the Sephardic Studies Program of Yeshiva University, volume IX, 1978. James Michener in Iberia, 1968, page 547 STATES: “…Generalissimo Franco is highly regarded by Jews; during the worst days of World War II, when pressures from Hitler were at their heaviest, Franco refused to issue anti-Jewish edicts and instead provided a sanctuary, never violated, for Jews who managed to make it to Spain. Many thousands of Jews owe their lives to Franco, and this is not forgotten.” [About 200,000 Jews were saved according to some Jewish sources.] In Resolutions of the War Emergency Conference of the World Jewish Congress, Atlantic City, New Jersey, November 26-30, 1944, page 15: “The War Emergency Conference extends its gratitude to the Holy See and to the Governments of Sweden, Switzerland, and Spain… for the protection they offered under difficult conditions to the persecuted Jews of Hungary…” In the Congressional Record of January 24, 1950, Rep. Abraham Multer quotes a spokesman for the Joint Distribution Committee: “During the height of Hitler’s blood baths, upwards of 60,000 Jews had been saved by the generosity of Spanish authorities.” Newsweek, March 2, 1970: “…a respected U.S. rabbi has come forward with surprising evidence that tens of thousands of Jews were saved from Nazi ovens by the personal intervention of an unlikely protector. Spain’s Generalissimo Franco, in so many other respects a wartime collaborator of Adolf Hitler. “I have absolute proof that Franco saved more than 60,000 Jews during World War II,” says Rabbi Chaim Lipscitz of Brooklyn’s Torah Vodaath and Mesitva rabbinical seminary. One should remember that after winning the Spanish Civil War, the “Nacionales” had established a single party authoritarian state under the leadership of general Franco. World War II started shortly afterwards, and though Spain was officially neutral, it did send a special Division of troops [47,000 men] to Russia to aid the Germans. Friendship with Hitler and Mussolini during the Civil War led Spain to be isolated after the collapse of the Axis powers. This changed with the new Cold War between USA and the Soviets and Franco’s strong anti-Communism made Spain into an ally of the United States.. When the Spanish State was declared a monarchy in 1947 – but no king was designated – Franco reserved for himself the right to name the person to be king, and deliberately delayed the selection due to his political considerations. In 1969, Generalissimo Franco designated Juan Carlos de Borbón as his official successor. Six years later, with the death of Generalissimo Franco on 20 November 1975, Juan Carlos became the “absolute King of Spain” who immediately began transition to democracy, which made Spain a constitutional monarchy ruled as A parliamentary democracy. Spanish monarchy was made possible thanks to Franco’s victory against Soviet efforts to force a Communist takeover in the Spanish Civil War in 1936-1939. The article ‘The Paradox of the Spanish Civil War “ and the “Moslems” in Nazi Concentration Camps includes comments of the author who was a war-time political prisoner in Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp bearing number 28865 and red markings of a political prisoner.
Del Proyecto de Filosofía en Español sugerimos la lectura de un artículo sobre Trotsky, redactado por Nicolás Krassó
Puede leerlo en el link a continuación
El historiador Antonio Quirós mantiene un interesante blog que nos parece digno de ser recomendado para quienes se interesan en trabajar sobre España , la Segunda República y la Guerra Civil, además del exilio posterior a la misma
Entrevista donde Gustavo Bueno expone aspectos de interés sobre la obra de Jean-Paul Sartre y el contexto histórico , Unión Soviética,España,Comunismo en España…